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An Oral History conducted and edited by 
Robert D. McCracken 



Nye County Town History Project 
Nye County, Nevada 

Tonopah 
1990 



COPYRIGHT 1991 
Nye County Ifcwn History Project 
Nye County Ccratiissioners 
Tonopah, Nevada 
89049 



Florence Ellis 
c. 1970 



Preface 



v 



Acknowledgments 



vii 



Introduction 



ix 



CHAPTER ONE 



1 



Florence's parents - her mother Mary Swartout, a teacher in 
Michigan and Washington state, meets and marries her father, 
William Huffman, in Oregon; childhood in southeastern Oregon; 
schooling in Oregon and in Reno; college days in Reno; a teaching 
job in lone during the Depression; first journey to lone; life in 
lone and the school and teacherage there; the many responsibilities 
of a teacher in a small ccromunity. 

CHAPTER TWO 15 

Weekends on the ranches in the Reese River Valley; dances in 
Austin, Tonopah, Goldfield and Smoky Valley; life at the teacherage; 
further discussion of dances and other social events; accepting 
a teaching job at Darrough's Hot Springs; bank closures in 1933; 
the Darrough family; the school at Darrough's; bank closures and 
remarks on George Wingfield. 

CHAPTER THREE * 29 

Further remarks on George Wingfield; the schools at Darrough's and 
lone; Darrough's Hot Springs, and more memories of the Darrough 
family, and of the Rogers family; the dances at Darrough's and 
elsewhere; memories of the Berg family; more remarks on the duties 
a teacher in rural Nevada performed. 

CHAPTER FOUR 42 

Becoming a teacher; moving to Sloan and meeting and marrying 
Bill Ellis; the camp at Sloan closes and the Ellises move to Las 
Vegas; the Younts of Pahrump; John Yount; mines in the Goodsprings 
area; memories of Jim and Delia White Fisk; remembering Sam Yount 
and others in the Yount family; the Ellis property in Las Vegas. 

Index 57 



iv 



PREFACE 



The Nye County Town History Project (NCTHP) engages in interviewing 
people who can provide firsthand descriptions of the individuals, events, 
and places that give history its substance. The products of this research 
are the tapes of the interviews and their transcriptions. 

In themselves, oral history interviews are not history. However, 
they often contain valuable primary source material , as useful in the 
process of historiography as the written sources to which historians have 
custcroarily turned. Verifying the accuracy of all of the statements made 
in the course of an interview would require more time and money than the 
NCTHP's operating budget permits. The program can vouch that the 
statements were made, but it cannot attest that they are free of error. 
Axxxcdingly, oral histories should be read with the same prudence that the 
reader exercises when consulting goverrraent records, newspaper accounts, 
diaries, and other sources of historical information. 

It is the policy of the NCTHP to produce transcripts that are as 
close to verbatim as possible, but sane alteration of the text is 
generally both unavoidable and desirable. When human speech is captured 
in print the result can be a morass of tangled syntax, false starts, and 
incomplete sentences, sometimes verging on incoherency. The type font 
contains no symbols for the physical gestures and the diverse vocal 
modulations that are integral parts of canmnainication through speech. 
Experience shews that totally verbatim transcripts are often largely 
unreadable and therefore a waste of the resources expended in their 
production. While keeping alterations to a minimum the NCTHP will, 



v 



in preparing a text: 

a. generally delete false starts, redundancies and the uhs , ahs and 
other noises with which speech is often sprinkled; 

b. occasionally ccrapress language that would be confusing to the 
reader in unaltered form; 

c. rarely shift a portion of a transcript to place it in its proper 
context; 

d. enclose in [brackets] explanatory information or words that were 
not uttered but have been added to render the text intelligible; 
and 

e. make every effort to correctly spell the names of all individuals 
and places, recognizing that an occasional word may be misspelled 
because no authoritative source on its correct spelling was found. 



vi 



As project director, I would like to express my deep appreciation to 
those who participated in the Nye County Town History Project (NCTHP) . It 
was an honor and a privilege to have the opportunity to obtain oral 
histories from so many wonderful individuals. I was welcomed into many 
homes — in many cases as a stranger — and was allowed to share in the 
recollection of local history. In a number of cases I had the opportunity 
to interview Nye County residents whom I have known and admired since I 
was a teenager; these experiences were especially gratifying. I thank the 
residents throughout Nye County and Nevada — too numerous to mention by 
name— who provided assistance, information, and photographs. They helped 
make the successful completion of this project possible. 

Appreciation goes to Chairman Joe S. Garcia, Jr. , Robert N. "Bobby" 
Revert, and Patricia S. Mankins, the Nye County cxanmissioners who 
initiated this project. Mr. Garcia and Mr. Revert, in particular, showed 
deep interest and unyielding support for the project fron its inception. 
Thanks also go to current commissioners Richard L. Carver and Barbara J. 
Raper, who have since joined Mr. Revert on the board and who have 
continued the project with enthusiastic support. Stephen T. Bradhurst, 
Jr. , planning consultant for Nye County/ gave unwavering support and 
advocacy of the project within Nye County and before the State of Nevada 
Nuclear Waste Project Office and the United States Department of Energy; 
both entities provided funds for this project. Thanks are also extended 
to Mr. Bradhurst for his advice and input regarding the conduct of the 
research and for constantly serving as a sounding board when 
methodological problems were worked out. This project wuld never have 



vii 



beccroe a reality without the enthusiastic support of the Nye County 

cdrmissioners and Mr, Bradhurst. 

Jean Charney served as administrative assistant, editor, indexer, 

and typist throughout the project; her services have been indispensable. 

Louise Terrell provided considerable assistance in transcribing many of 

the oral histories; Barbara Douglass also transcribed a number of 

interviews. Transcribing, typing, editing, and indexing were provided at 

various times by Jodie Hanson, Alice Levine, Mike Green, Cynthia Tremblay, 

and Jean Stoess. Jared Charney contributed essential word processing 

skills. Mai re Hayes, Michelle Starika, Anita Coryell, Jodie Hanson, 

Michelle Welsh, Lindsay Schumacher, and Shena Salzmann shouldered the 

herculean task of proofreading the oral histories. Gretchen Loeffler and 

Bantoi McCracken assisted in numerous secretarial and clerical duties. 

Phillip Earl of the Nevada Historical Society contributed valuable support 

and criticism throughout the project, and Tern King at the Oral History 

Program of the University of Nevada at Reno served as a consulting oral 

historian. Much deserved thanks are extended to all these persons. 

All material for the NCTHP was prepared with the support of the U.S. 

Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG08-89NV10820. However, any opinions, 

findings, conclusions, or reconmendations expressed herein are those of 

the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of DOE. 

— Robert D. McCracken 
Tonopah, Nevada 
1990 



Historians generally consider the year 1890 as the end of the 
Jtaarican frontier. By then, most of the western United States had been 
settled, ranches and farms developed, cownunities established, and roads 
and railroads constructed. The mining boomtcwns, based on the lure of 
overnight riches from newly developed lodes, were but a memory. 

Although Nevada was granted statehood in 1864 , examination of any map 
of the state from the late 1800s shows that while much of the state was 
mapped and its geographical features named, a vast region—stretching from 
Belmont south to the Las Vegas meadows, apprising most of Nye County— 
repaired largely unsettled and unmapped. In 1890 most of southcentral 
Nevada remained very much a frontier, and it continued to be for at least 
another twenty years. 

The great mining booms at Tonopah (1900), Goldfield (1902), and 
Rhyolite (1904) represent the last major flowering of what might be called 
the Old West in the United States. Consequently, southcentral Nevada, 
notably Nye County, remains close to the American frontier; closer, 
perhaps, than any other region of the American West. In a real sense, a 
significant part of the frontier can still be found in southcentral 
Nevada. It exists in the attitudes, values, lifestyles, and memories of 
area residents. The frontier-like character of the area also is visible 
in the relatively undisturbed quality of the natural environment, most of 
it essentially untouched by human hands. 

A survey of written sources on southcentral Nevada's history reveals 
seme material from the boemtown period from 1900 to about 1915, but very 
little on the area after around 1920. The volume of available sources 



ix 



varies from town to town: A fair amount of literature, for instance, can 
be found covering Tonopah's first two decades of existence, and the town 
has had a newspaper continuously since its first year. In contrast, 
relatively little is known about the early days of Gabbs, Round Mountain, 
Manhattan, Beatty, Amargosa Valley, and Pahrump. Gabbs' s only newspaper 
was published intennittently between 1974 and 1976. Hound Mountain's only 
newspaper, the Round Mountain Nugget , was published between 1906 and 1910. 
Manhattan had newspaper coverage for most of the years between 1906 and 
1922. Araargosa Valley has never had a newspaper; Beatty 's independent 
paper folded in 1912. Pahrump 's first newspaper did not appear until 
1971. All six cratiminities received only spotty coverage in the newspapers 
of other contnunities after their own papers folded, although Beatty was 
served by the Beatty Bulletin , which was published as a supplement to the 
Goldfield News between 1947 and 1956 . Consequently, roost information on 
the history of scuthcentral Nevada after 1920 is stored in the merrories of 
individuals who are still living. 

Aware of Nye County's close ties to our nation's frontier past, and 
recognizing that few written sources on local history are available, 
especially after about 1920, the Nye County Caranissioners initiated the 
Nye County Town History Project (NCIHP) . The NCIHP represents an effort 
to systematically collect and preserve information on the history of Nye 
County. The centerpiece of the NCIHP is a large set of interviews 
conducted with individuals who had knowledge of local history. Each 
interview was recorded, transcribed, and then edited lightly to preserve 
the language and speech patterns of those interviewed. All oral history 
interviews have been printed on acid-free paper and bound and archived in 
Nye County libraries, Special Collections in the James R. Dickinson 



x 



Library at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and at other archival 
sites located throughout Nevada. The interviews vary in 
length and detail, but together they form a never-before-available 
composite picture of each ccximinity's life and development. The 
collection of interviews for each ccranunity can be ccnpared to a bouquet: 
Each flower in the bouquet is unique— seme are large, others are small- 
yet each adds to the total image. In sum, the interviews provide a 
composite view of ccnraanity and county history, revealing the flew of life 
and events for a part of Nevada that has heretofore been largely neglected 
by historians. 

Collection of the oral histories has been accompanied by the 
assembling of a set of photographs depicting each aarmunity's history. 
These pictures have been obtained frcm participants in the oral history 
interview and other present and past Nye County residents. In all, more 
than 1,000 photos have been collected and carefully identified. Ccmplete 
sets of the photographs have been archived along with the oral histories. 

On the basis of the oral interviews as well as existing written 
sources, histories have been prepared for the major communities in Nye 
County. These histories also have been archived. 

The town history project is one component of a Nye County program to 
determine the socioecoronic iiqpacts of a federal proposal to build and 
operate a nuclear waste repository in southcentral Nye County. The 
repository, which would be located inside a mountain (Yucca Mountain) , 
would be the nation's first, and possibly only, permanent disposal site 
for high-level radioactive waste. The Nye County Board of County 
Cnmmissioners initiated the NCTHP in 1987 in order to collect information 
on the origin, history, traditions, and quality of life of Nye County 



xi 



oamnanities that may be impacted by a repository. If the repository is 
:x3nstructed, it will remain a source of interest for hundreds, possibly 
thousands, of years to come, and future generations will likely want to 
know more about the people who once resided near the site. In the event 
that government policy changes and a high-level nuclear waste repository 
is not constructed in Nye County, material ccnpiled by the NCIHP will 
remain for the use and enjoyment of all. 

— R.D.M. 



This is Robert McCracken talking to Florence Ellis at her heme in Las 
Vegas, Nevada, May 14, 1990. 

CHAPTER ONE 

RM: Florence, could we start by you telling me your name as it reads on 

your birth certificate? 

FE: Luetta Florence Huffman. 

RM: And when and where were you born? 

FE: I was born in southeastern Oregon on a ranch about 10 miles out of 
Bums, Oregon. My grandmother delivered me because the doctor didn't get 
there in time. 

RM: And what was your birthdate? 
FE: April 10, 1911. 

RM: And could you tell me your father's name? 

FE: My father was William D. Huffman. 

RM: And do you know when and where he was born? 

FE: I think my father was born in Green Castle, Missouri. 

RM: What was your mother's given name. 

FE: My mother's given name was Mary Swartout. 

RM: And where was she born? 

FE: She was born in Michigan - Marshall, Michigan - and I'm not sure of 
the date. 

RM: How did your parents happen to end up in Oregon? 
FE: My mother was a teacher for 20 years in Michigan. She moved to 
Taccxna, V^hington, to teach. My graiximother had crossed the plains in 
1849, with a wagon train. They came to California; I think they were up 
around Sonora, California, Jim Town and in that area. (I had one uncle 



1 



born in that area. ) Then they moved to Mason Valley, south of Yerington. 
When my mother was 8 she was sent back east to her father's people in 
Michigan, Her father died before she was born. She was sent back to her 
father's people and educated [there]. She graduated from AT hi an College, 
Michigan. That school is still operating. When she moved to Taccma she 
went to visit my grandmother, who lived on a ranch out of Burns, Oregon, 
and there she met my father. Oftey were married there. 
FM: Did you grow up in Burns? 

FE: No, I grew up on a ranch in southeastern Oregon about 110 miles 
south of Burns in the Steens Mountain area. When my brother was ready 
for high school, for the rest of my schooling, through my junior year of 
high school, I ***nt to school in Reno (ray mother taught out of Reno at 
Huf fakers) . I graduated from high school in Payette, Idaho (I lived with 
an aunt that year) . I went back to the University of Nevada in Reno and 
graduated from there in the normal course in education. 
RM: Are there any high points that stick out in your memory about 
grcwing up in Reno? 

FE: No. It was just going to school. We would be there all winter, 
then go back to the ranch in the sunnier, which I enjoyed very much. I'm 
glad I had the privilege of growing up on a ranch. 
RM: Why do you say that? 

FE: It's particularly because we worked. We weren't exposed to all the 
stuff that young people are today, and we never had time to be bored. 
When we did get together we really had very good times. It was a 
completely different warld than young people grow up in today. 
RM: What were some of the things you did when you got together? 
FE: Oh, dancing, mostly. 



2 



RM: To live music? 

FE: Mostly. There was always scmebody who could play - usually there 
were 3 instruments. 

RM: What did you do when you graduated from college? 

FE: Those were Depression days, you knew, and jobs were hard to find. 

RM: Now what year was it you graduated? 

FE: It was 1930. At that time, the university had a placement bureau. 
Because of my background they felt that I would do well in the country, 
so they sent me to lone for my first school. 

RM: What did you think about going down to lone before you actually 
left? 

FE: I can tell you, I was glad to have a job. Anybody who had a job was 
lucky in those days. 

RM: Did a lot of your classmates get jobs? 

FE: I think most of them did. Of course, in those days, to graduate in 
elementary education, the requirement was that you had to teach 2 years 
in the country someplace. Ihey didn't hire the young women in the town 
schools without a little experience. 

RM: Oh, so you got your experience out in the country schools? 

FE: Yes. Then I stayed with it. As long as I taught, I taught in the 

country. 

RM: Was that a general requirement around the country, or just in 
Nevada? 

FE: I don't think so. It was in Nevada but I think, partially, it was 
because jobs were so scarce. Most young people didn't want to go out to 
those isolated areas. But because I had the background I did, I didn't 
mind. As I said, I was glad to have a job. 



3 



RM: I've talked to a number of people who said that it was mostly young 
women who taught in the country schools. 

FE: Vary few men taught elementary, period, in those days the way they 
do today. They were either college professors or they taught high 
school, 

RM: Did you have classroom experience before you went out? 

FE: We had practice teaching. I taught at Souths ide in Reno and 

McKinley Park, I think, was the other school. We had 2 semesters, if I 

remember correctly, of practice teaching. 

RM: How did you get down to lone your first time? 

FE: A friend drove me. 

RM: Was it difficult to get to? 

FE: Oh, of course it was. We went through Eastgate. It was Eastgate, 
Middlegate and I've forgotten what the other was. There was a road from 
Eastgate through what they call the lone Valley where the Ichthyosaur 
[Park is] . Often you went down into lone. 
RM: Gahbs was not even a thought in those days, was it? 
FE: Oh no. Gahbs came in when Basic Magnesium started. We came frcm 
Fallon across toward Austin. Hie only place between Austin and Fallon, 
in those days, was Frerchmans Station. There you paid 10 cents for a 
glass of water. The other thing that was kind of interesting was that 
Gull Gray had gone to school at the same time I did in Reno (he was 2 
years ahead of me in my brother's class) but [later] he [became] deputy 
superintendent [of schools] in the northern part of the state. 
Occasionally I'd see Gull, and every time I think of Frenchmans Station I 
think of the time that we both ended up there buying water for 10 cents a 
glass. 



4 



RM: Were the roads all dirt? 

FE: I think they were all the way down. I remember the one between here 
[las Vegas] and Tbnopah was terribly corduroyed. It was very rough. 
RM: They had just built it, I think, because that was about . . . they 
built it on the old railroad grade between here and Tbnopah. 
FE: Yes. The Tbnopah and Tidewater, I think, was still operating at 
that time. 

RM: Yes. And the LV&T [Las Vegas and Tbnopah] had been discontinued by 
then. 

FE: I don't remenber that one at all. 

RM: It had stopped, I think, in 1918 or something like that. So a 
friend took you down to lone. And could you describe lone as it looked 
when you first got there? 

FE: There was a working cinnabar mine [in lone] at that time, and that 
was really the only activity there. I had a 2-rocm teacherage. We had 
electricity as long as the fellow wto owned the store ran his electrical 
equipment, but I think he only ran it until about 12:00 at night and then 
you were out of electricity. That was the Cislini family. There were 
about 10 houses. The schoolhouse was up on the hill not far from where 
the teacherage was. The store belonged to this Cislini. One family 
lived under the hill and the husband was working at the mine. I don't 
know just what interest he had in it - but the mine was the economy of 
the town at that time. Then there were ranches down Reese River. New 
they all [belong to] Indians. But at that time there were probably 8 
ranches down in the valley. 

PM: Did the ranchers' children go to school in lone? 

FE: There weren't any children. They were all old-timers in there. 



5 



However, one time I did board a little girl at the teacherage and she 
went to school with me for 6 months. I can't remember her first name 
new, but she was a Vfarthington. 
RM: And they had a ranch over there? 

PE: Yes. At the head of Indian Creek- You know, you want from Reese 
River, then followed down an area to Indian Creek . . . you'd know the 
place. It was the Seyler place and it was at the mouth of Indian Creek. 
But they made a living off of cattle. 

RM: Could you describe the Cislinis' store at that time? 

FE: lhey supplied everything anybody needed. Hie real owner was S. 

Luqpa - he was an old Italian fellow. But somewhere or other I think he 

was related to Billy Cislini. About once a month, or every 2 weeks, 

Cislini would take his truck to Fallon and load up. He would supply 

people with whatever they needed. 

RM: And Cislini did that, not Lumpa? 

FE: Yes. Lumpa was too old; Cislini was my age. He was the one who 
hired me - he was the clerk of the school board at that time. There 
wasn't any bath in the teacherage, so I had to go to Cislinis' to have my 
bath. 

RM: Oh, they had a bathroom there? 

FE: [chuckles] Yes. He had running vrater but an outside toilet. 

PM: That was probably the only bathtub in town, wasn't it? [chuckles] 

FE: It could have been - I don't knew, [chuckles] That was a privilege 

the teacher had. 

RM: What was your pay? 

FE: I think I got $150 a month, which was very good money at that time. 
For nine months, that was one of the better salaries in rural schools. 



6 



The reason it was, was because they were so isolated. But I was there 
for 2 years and I never spent a weekend in lone. 
RM: Is that right - you would clear out? 

FE: Someone always invited me down the valley to one of the ranches. 

PM: Who ran the school? Was there a local school board in lone? 

FE: They had a school board. Usually there were 3 on the school board - 

Mr. Phillips and Billy Cislini and a man whose name I can't renennber. 

The Phillips family had been in there during the period when lone was the 

county seat. 

PM: I see. 

FE: They had a movie house in lone at one time. Mr. Phillips had old 
newspapers that showed where the movie house was. They had a little 
newspaper and they had a drugstore. How many people were there at that 
time, I don't know, but there were quite a few. But, of course, outside 
of this cinnabar it was absolutely dead [when I was there] . 
PM: Were the old abandoned buildings still there? 
FE: Not too many. 

PM: Were there a lot of old foundations that the buildings had sat on? 
FE: Not particularly. 

RM: It wasn't evident that it was kind of a semi-abandoned town, in 
other words? 

FE: No. Of course, in a place like that, there will always be a bunoh 
of old miners. They had a big old stove in the back of the store and the 
old miners would sit around and play 15-2 and spit tobacco into the 
spittoon, [chuckles] 

RM: So it was the old potbelly stove type thing? 

FE: Yes. That was also what we had in the schoolhouse. At that time 



7 



the teachers did their own janitor work and hauled in the wood. We did 
it all. 

RM: Did you chop your own wood? 

FE: Oh, no. They chopped it and furnished it for the teacherage, too. 
RM: Did you cook your cwn meals? 
FE: Oh sure. 

RM: You didn't board with somebody? 

FE: No, not there. 

RM: Was your place comfortable? 

FE: Very comfortable. As long as I was warm I was comfortable. 

RM: Could you describe the interior of your teacherage? 

FE: It was just 2 rocms. My kitchen was really where I lived and 

worked. I had a nice big stove to keep me good and warm and then I had a 

bedrocm, and that was it. 

RM: Did you bring your own household supplies with you or did they 
furnish them? 

FE: I think they furnished them. I don't remember having any. 
RM: And you had lights till midnight, or whatever. 

FE: Till midnight I had electric. They were on when I'd be up [in the 
morning] . I'd get up because I was too cold to stay in bed. 
RM: You were cold in the bed? 

FE: I was cold about half the time. It was cold up there. 
RM: Did you wear long underwear or anything like that? 
FE: Oh, no. 

RM: Teachers wore dresses, didn't they? 
FE: Definitely. 
RM: Long dresses? 



8 



FEz No. Just skirts and sweaters and things like that. 
FM: And the school was near where you lived? 
FE: Yes. I would say a half a block. 

FM: So you didn't have to wade ttoough a lot of snow or anything. 

FE: Well, sometimes we did. And of course, we were up on the hill. My 

little teacherage was . . . you know where the store is - the old store 

is still there. I think my old school register is still in that store 

somewhere. Someone went through and they [told me they'd seen it] . But 

my little teacherage was up on the hill - I don't knew whether it's still 

there or not. Cislinis were there on the hill and what the heck was the 

other family - an Italian family. They were good kids . I had 17 

youngsters in 8 grades. 

RM: Was it a one-roam schoolhouse? 

FE: Yes. 

RM: Tell roe how you arranged 17 children in eight grades . 
FE: You had to make out lesson plans. The main thing was to allot your 
time, because there are a lot of subjects. I will say, children in those 
days would work. That was no problem. They would get their lessons. 
And you knew how much time you had for each period. The point was, you 
had so many pages to cover in the year's time and you had to divide the 
time so that you would cover those pages. There was no way that they 
couldn't get their lessons because there were about 2 [kids] to a class. 
They couldn't go home till they had their lesson. 
RM: So they couldn't fake it or hide, could they? 
FE: No. They couldn't fake it, they had to have it. Use deputy 
superintendent came about twice a year. At that time they gave the 
examinations to the seventh and eighth grade; the teacher didn't even get 



to see the tests beforehand. If the children didn't know [their 
lessons], you didn't have a job. 

RM: I see. You would lose your job if they didn't do well on the test. 
FE: If you didn't produce, somebody else would have your job. 
KM: Did you give the children homework? 
FE: Oh, sure they had homework. 
KM: They didn't do it all in class? 

FE: No, they had homework. They had to do a lot at hone because with 
that many youngsters we worked all day. There wasn't a lot of 
foolishness. 

RM: I went to a school that had 4 grades in one rocm - there were 4 rows 

and each grade was a row. But I've wondered how you do it with 8 grades. 

FE: You have to allot the time. There's so much ma t erial to cover and 

you have to figure out a way to get that covered. 

RM: Did grades one and two sit in one row, or how did you do that? 

FE: Oh no. It was just according to the size of the desks and the size 

of the children. 

RM: I see. So if you were going to work with the third grade, let's 
say, you would take them over into one corner? 

FE: Yes. You usually had your chairs in a circle. It's amazing - the 
children would concentrate. They were used to that. So they didn't pay 
any attention to anybody else. 

RM: What were seme of the subjects that you covered? 
FE: Oh goodness. We didn't have as many in those days, but we had 
English, history, math, spelling, biology and civics, and then we had to 
teach drawing and music, such as it amounted to. You ware trained to 
teach enough to teach the requirements. And the same with art - there 



were certain requirements that you had to fulfill. 

We used to have a teacher's guide. They don't have them anymore. 
The guide [specified] that you were supposed to cover this much. The 
children were supposed to know this much when they started their eighth 
grade exam. 

KM: Did you have discipline problems? 

FE: None. Never. They were good kids, all of them. 

RM: What was the ethnic cocnposition of the school? 

FE: I can't remember. There were about 3 Indians - all from the same 

family. 

RM: Is that right? 

FE: And the others were all white, Most of them were from this family 
that ... I had one Italian, Mary [Manzini] . I had just one eighth 
grad er then. Ihe others were from a family that was vorking at the mine. 
A little fourth grader from that family was prcmoted - allowed to skip a 
grade - when the family moved to Salt Lake. So we did a good job. 
RM: Yes, it sounds like it. Do you recall any of the textbooks you 
used? 

FE: Oh, not really. You know that's a long time to remember back. 
RM: Yes. It's 57 years ago or so. 

FE: I really don't remember it all. We had geography. And we had to 
teach a certain amount of hygiene. Sometimes I get mixed up new with 
what I had to do in Oregon in the country schools. But usually it was 
civics and history and the hygiene that were in the state test. And I 
think they had English, too. 

RM: And there were only 3 Indian children in your classroom? 

FE: The district got more money for the Indian children so it was good 



11 



to have the Indian children - the district could collect more money frcra 
the state. 

FM: And you taught there . . . 

FE: TtaD years. 

RM: And it was run by lone? 

FE: That's right, but it was always supervised by the deputy super- 
intendent; it was under state supervision. 

FM: Yes. But it was under a local school board - it wasn't Nye County 
or anything like that? 

FE: No. Every little school had its school board. 

FM: Do you recall what the school district was called? 

FE: lane, I guess. 

FM: Were you paid monthly or ... ? 

FE: Monthly. 

RM: And how did you get your mail? 

FE: At the post office, which was in the store. I think we had mail 3 

times a week. The stage came down Reese River fron Austin. 

RM: Did you have mail boxes? 

FE: No. We'd go to the store and get our mail. 

RM: Who was the postmaster? 

FE: Oh, probably Billy Cislini. 

FM: And did he have stamps and everything there? 

FE: As far as I remember. I know we depended on him for everything. 

RM: Did you get newspapers there? 

FE: Oh sure. They would ccme in the mail. 

RM: Did you have a feeling of isolation living there? 

FE: I'll tell you, you were so busy all day you didn't have time to be 

12 



isolated. I had a lot of homework to do too, it seemed. 
RM: Your honework consisted of what now? 

PE: Correcting papers and being sure that I knew what was in the lesson 
for the next day. 

RM: You had to be an educational jack-of-all-trades there, didn't you? 
FE: That's right. We used to have the Sunday school when the traveling 
missionary rould come through* 
RM: Oh, you had Sunday school too? 

FE: Not all the tine, but when the traveling missionary would come 
through. 

RM: And that was on Sunday? 

FE: No. We'd have services whenever he could cane tlirough. 
RM: So you had religious instruction right there in the school? 
re: Yes. But it would be in the evening so everybody could cane. 
RM: Oh, I see. Did most of the children attend? 

FE: Sure. The Indians did too. And then we had to have programs for 
Christmas and Thanksgiving that the children would put on. 
RM: And what kind of programs did they consist of? 

FE: Something pertaining to the occasion. You'd have plays, recitals, 
singing - whatever they could do. Whatever you could put together, we 
did. 

RM: Is there anything that stands out in your mind about the kind of 
clothing that the children wore? 

FE: They were just like any other youngsters in the country - Levi's, 
shirts, sweaters ... of course, the girls wore dresses in those days. 
They didn't come to school in shorts and Levi's. 
RM: Did all the children live in town or were they bused in? 



13 



FE: Oh heavens no, not then. Nobody had heard of busing kids around 
then. 

RK: So you either lived near the school or you didn't go. 

FE: That's right. People would move in. For instance, I had 2 little 

girls from Berlin where the Ichthyosaur Park is and they boarded or had 

one of the houses - the granctaother stayed with those 2 little 

youngsters. 



14 



CHAPTER TWO 



FE: Any schoolteacher of that same vintage wauld tell you the same 
thing. There are not many of them around yet. 

KM: Yes. But I've interviewed a couple and they don't always give me as 
much detail as you do - and particularly pertaining to that locality. 
You burned wood, not coal, right? 
FE: Yes, we burned wood. 

RM: So there was a road ccming over the mountains leading to Reese 
River, and then there was another one going down, lite to the Ichthyosaur 
Park and then up toward Highway 50? 

FE: ... Fallon. I mean, you'd go over the mountain. You'd go west 
and then turn north and head north. 

RM: It was probably the present road to Gabbs, wasn't it? 

FE: I haven't been on that road so I don't know. I haven't been back 

there since . . . I'd lite to go someday, too. 

RM: There was probably not even a prospect hole at Gabbs, was there? 
FE: There wasn't anything, to xry knowledge, at Gabbs. That all started 
in the late 1930s. 

RM: And the cinnabar mine was the only mine you recall that was wDrking 
there? 

FE: Yes, that was operating. Of course now, they're supposed to have 
discovered gold up in that area and so . . . 

RM: Yes. Do you recall the winters as being difficult for you there? 
FE: Ihey were cold, but I didn't knew any better then. I didn't know 
there was a place lite southern Nevada. Weekends there were young people 
in the valley - along Reese River; they'd came over in the sleigh and 

15 



pick me up. 

RM: They'd cane over in a horse-drawn sleigh? 

FE: Yes - if the road was too bad, they'd ccme over in a sleigh and take 
me down to the ranches. 

RM: Could you tell me about your weekends at the ranches? 

FE: Sometimes we loaded hay, sanetimes we worked around the house, or 

whatever. We made bread, fruitcakes, etc. 

RM: So you just pitched right in and did whatever they were doing? 

FE: That's right. That's why they asked me back, [laughs] Oh, it was 

fun. We had a good time. 

RM: What were seme of the ranches that you went to? 

FE: There was the Worthington place and the Bowlers and the Schmallings. 
RM: Who all was there at the Worttiington place? 

FE: There was a young fellow - about 25, I guess - and then his sister 
and his sister's husband and there was a younger girl. There were 2 
younger ones and one of them was one who came over to go to school. 
RM: And these were relatively small ranches, reren't they? I mean, they 
didn't have a lot of cattle, did they? 

FE: I really don't know. They had enough to make a living, that's all I 
can say. 

RM: So the Worthingtons' was one of the ranches you went to . . . 
FE: And the Schmallings' . There was a young married couple and the 
mother - she used to make fruit cakes in a washtub. We'd help her make 
fruitcakes. (She made a lot of fruitcakes.) Below that was the 
Derringer place - there were 2 old bachelors living there. The next one 
down was the Bowler place. The daughter, Gladys, was 4 years older than 
I. I have just seen her within the last month, after 40 years of not 

16 



seeing her. 

KM: Is that right? What's ter name? 

FE: Gladys Bowler. I was 19 and she was 24. We used to go to all the 
dances together. She played the piano. 
KM: Where ware the dances held? 

FE: Austin, Smoky Valley, at the springs where I taught for 2 years 

[later on], and Goldfield, Tbnopah ... we went all over. 

KM: Hew did you get to all these places? 

FE: Somebody always had a car. 

KM: You never had car trouble or anything? 

FE: Oh yes. One night we had flat tires all night long. We got to the 

dance when it was practically over, [laughs] 

KM: [laughs] Ttoe roads were all dirt, weren't they? 

FE: Oh sure. And there would always would be a carload of us - there 

would always be a bunch of us going. 

RM: Ccming fran Reese River and lone? 

FE: I was the only one from lone. One time there was a young fellow 
whose nieces and nephews I taught, and he used to go with us. There were 
the ones from the Worthingtons ' and Gladys and me. 
RM: And you'd stay all night down at the site? 

FE: Oh, you'd dance all night. You'd dance till daylight. They'd have 
a midnight supper and then they'd have breakfast. 
RM: What did you do for music? 

FE: Back then it was the Acrees. If you know anything about Austin 
... 

RM: Their name ccraes up every time, doesn't it? 

FE: Oh yes. Somebody's always saying, "Milly and Bert." Their 2 sons 



17 



played, too. 

KM: And they played instruments, too? 
FE: Yes. Ohey would play all night long. 
KM: And the 2 boys were the Acrees' sons? 

FE: Yes. One was Dale, and I can't remember the other f el lew's name 
anymore - it seems to me it was Tcm. Dale and his mother and dad always 
played. She would play until her fingers would get so worn she'd have to 
wrap them with tape. Uiey were great. 
RM: And they were good musicians, weren't they? 

FE: Yes, they really were. Ttey were very well-educated people and they 
were nice people. 

RM: Why do you say they were very well-educated? 

FE: Well, a lot of people in that day and age didn't go on to college, 

but Millie and Bert had been to college. 

RM: Did you ever stay at their house in Austin? 

FE: No. I stayed, sometimes, with a woman whose family came from Smoky 
Valley - the MzClouds - which was another old-time family. Normally we'd 
drive home after the dance. 

RM: Oh, I see. And then sleep all the next day? 

FE: Well, I don't know. I never could sleep after a dance. I'd sleep 
that night till I'd get there. I had so much fun it carried me along. 
RM: Did they drink much at these dances? 

FE: No. If anyone did, I didn't knew it. In those days I didn't take a 
drink, period. But if anyone got the least bit out of line they were 
taken out of the dance hall. 

RM: How many people would you say were at one of those dances? 
FE: As many people as there were around. Everybody went. 



18 



RM: Would that be about 50 or 100 or 200 or . . . ? 

FE: Oh, I'd say 100 to 150. Of course in Tbnopah and Goldfield, we 

would have more. But their conduct had to be above reproach or they got 

out. 

RM: What did the suppers consist of that they served? 
FE: Sandwiches and cakes and salads. 
RM: And who would bring all that? 

FE: The Darroughs used to furnish it in [Smoky Valley because] they made 
money off of the dances. 

RM: Did they have dances in Reese River or lone? 
FE: No. 

RM: There wasn't any place to have it, was there? 

FE: No. And there weren't enough people. In Austin it was in the old 
International Hotel, but I don't know who put it on. 
RM: Where were they held in Tbnopah? 

FE: In the Masonic Hall on the opposite corner from the Mizpah. 

RM: 0h f where the drugstore later was? 

FE: No, it was across from the drugstore, upstairs. 

RM: Oh, really? Where were they held in Goldfield? 

FE: Scxretimas in the old Goldfield Hotel and sometimes in a new Masonic 
building. That was on the opposite side of the street and back a little 
way from the main street. 
RM: Who sponsored the dances? 

FE: I guess they had them to make money. I think it was $2 or $2.50, 
something like that, to go. That would pay for the music and so on. The 
Elks charity ball was the outstanding event. 
FM: You lived in the teacherage all the time you were at lone? 

19 



FE: Yes, 

RM: Did you go hone to Reno much? 

FE: Usually for Thanksgiving and Christmas. 

KM: You didn't have your own car when you were there, did you? 
FE: I did the second year. That was ity first expense, [chuckles] 
EM: What kind of car did you buy? 

EE: A Model-A Ford with a rumble seat. It was a good little car - I 
covered a lot of ground. 
RM: Did you buy it new? 

FE: No, I bought it from a car dealer whose children I had kncwn from 

going to school in Reno. 

EM: What did you pay for it? 

FE: I think $500. 

RM: Four months pay? Well, you were able to save quite a bit of money 
there, weren't you? 

FE: Sure - practically all of it. My food was the only expense, and I 
paid for the teacher age; I think I paid $30 a month. 
RM: Well, that was a lot. 

FE: It was. But then, the people on the school board depended on that, 
too. I don't know whether it went into the school funds or what. 
RM: Yes, that was part of the ecoranics of it. 
FE: lhe rent included lights and wood. 

RM: Do you recall what kinds of meals you prepared for yourself there? 
FE: I have always cooked for myself. 
RM: Did you make fancy meals? 

FE: Oh no. But I like to cook so I've always cooked. 

RM: Did you have guests over very often or anything like that? 

20 



FE: No. I'll tell you, in those days the country schoolteacher walked 
the straight and narrow. 

RM: You had to be above any kind of suspicion, didn't you? 
FE: Absolutely. Absolutely above reproach. 

RM: They expected the teacher to adhere to a higher moral standard than 
anybody, didn't they? 
FE: Absolutely. 

RM: What would happen if there was any kind of gossip about you? 

FE: You'd lose your certificate. 

RM: Oh, you wouldn't just lose your job? 

FE: No, you'd lose your certificate. I think maybe that wuld be a good 
thing today. I think people would do a better job if they had seme of 
those restrictions can them today. 
RM: Now, what other ranchers did you see? 

FE: We'd see them all any time there was a gathering. Even if they 
didn't dance, everybody went because it was a community gathering and 
that's about the only time that people had any social life. For 
instance, I don't think those 2 old bachelors ever did dance. There were 
the 0' Toole beys and then somebody at Welches' Ranch. That was the last 
one down the valley before you got into Austin. But I don't recall their 
ever taking any part in anything that the cxranunity did. 
RM: The Welches or the O'Tooles? 

FE: The Welches. No, the O'Tooles came seme - not too much, but they 
came seme. 

RM: Is there ariything that stands out in your mind about the social life 
of the ranchers in the valley? 

FE: No. Really, about all re did when re'd get together was dance, or 



21 



play cards. Vfe played 500 in lone. The vonen fixed it up seme way or 

another so you'd have a mirror behind [chuckles] so you could see the 

men's cards. I think we played the women against the men. 

RM: And the women had it rigged so you could see the guys' cards? 

FE: Yes, that's what we'd do. But we had a lot of fun. 

RM: What were some of the other card games you played? 

FE: I think 500 was the one we played the most. And we used to have 

taffy pulls and things like that. Of course, when we had snow we had the 

hill - we'd slide down the hill. 

RM: Was Valentine's Day a big day in the schools in those days? 

FE: You made valentines and so on, but they didn't make any big deal of 

it. 

RM: How about Halloween? Was that a big school day? 

FE: I don't remember doing anytiiing, particularly. We'd make punpkins, 

but I don't remember any tr ick-or-treating . 

RM: Was Easter a big day? Did you go home on Easter? 

FE: No. We colored eggs and had an Easter egg hunt. 

RM: And the communities were not what you would describe as religious 

ccmnunities, were they? That is, they didn't have churches, did they? 

FE: No. The man who started our Presbyterian [church] on Charleston 

[Street in Las Vegas] was our missionary then. He lived in Carson City 

and about once a month he would come and we'd have services, but that was 

about it. 

RM: Would you describe the people as religious? 

FE: I think they were all good people. I think they lived very ethical 
lives and that's my idea of religion. 

RM: But as far as being believers in the Christian faith and all 



22 



that . . . 

FE: They were all Christians. But living out like that you don't have 
the time for a lot of extra things, you know. Growing up as a child it 
was the sane way. The missionaries vised to came out from Baker, Oregon, 
and whenever they came, we'd have services. 

KM: Do you think people were more ethical then than they are now? 
FE: I think they were. If they told you they ware going to do 
something, they did it. 
KM: And new that's not the case, is it? 

FE: [chuckles] I'm not saying that, but I know then that people vgere 
very honest. 

KM: I interviewed a fellow [Frank Brockman] who used to live in Beatty. 
He had moved there from California and he said a person's word in Beatty 
was worth more than a contract in California. 

FE: That's right. Of course, I think Tonopah has changed now, because 
you've got a lot of outsiders. But most of those families were third 
generation people, and it makes a difference when people have lived in 
the same place for so long. 
RM: Why did you leave lone after 2 years? 

FE: Because they didn't hire me hack. I can't remember what ... I 
think, maybe, I had an offer from [Darrough's Hot] Springs. I wauld 
rather be at the springs than I wuld at lone. 
KM: Why did you prefer the springs? 

FE: It was nicer, and I liked the Darroughs. I knew all the people in 
Stocky Valley. And actually, the Darroughs were like family to me. I 
boa r ded with them. 

KM: When did you go to the Darroughs'? Was it in '33? 



23 



FE: Let's see, I was there 2 years then, too. Then's when they closed 
the schools because of closing the bank. 

KM: I didn't knew they closed the schools when they closed the banks. 
FE: I was a month short. I had to get ray work done in 8 months instead 
of 9 months. 
RM: This was at lone? 

FE: No, this was at Darrough's. They didn't have money enough to pay 
anynore and we took I.O.U.s. With the banks closed, that's where our 
money was. So we had to wait until they got that straightened out. 
RM: How long did that take? 

FE: About 2 or 3 nrcnths, as I remember. Of course I roomed and boarded 

with the Darroughs, so it didn't make any difference. 

RM: And What year did you go to Darrough's? 

FE: I cane in the fall of '32. 

RM: How long did you teach at Darrough's? 

FE: TV*d years - in '32 and '33. 

RM: And you went there because you preferred it? 

FE: Yes. It was warmer and nicer there, and Round Mountain was close. 
RM: You taught at Darrough's right after Miss Holts, didn't you? 
FE: I don't know whether I was there right after Betty or not. Betty 
has been one of ny best friends for all these years. But *e are very 
different people. Betty never liked to wash dishes or do one thing, and 
I always enjoyed being part of the family. But [before] Betty was up at 
Round Mountain, she'd been at Millett. 1 can't remember whether there 
was somebody between when I went to the springs and when [she did, or 
not] • I think there was one teacher in between but I can't remember who 
it was. 



24 



RM: Where did you live when you went to Darrough's? 
FE: With the family. 

RM: And you lived in that big building there? 
FE: Yes, the old hotel. 

RM: And the school was in there too, wasn't it? 

FE: No, it was up not quite as far as the road - the building was on the 

south side. There was Pasquale, an old bachelor who lived on the other 

lot in a little house. I don't krcw whether it's still there or not. 

RM: Grandma [Laura] Darrough didn't live in the hotel, did she? 

FE: No. She had her own little house. She made these for me. 

RM: Is that right? You're showing me same doilies that Grandma Darrough 

made. Those are beautiful. 

FE: Yes. They were little. She made me little ones. Those were for 
plates and then one for a glass and then seme for serving. 
RM: These were made quite a while ago, vaaren't they? 
FE: Over 50 years. 
RM: They're gorgeous. 

FE: The fact she made them for me was what gives them iirportance. 
RM: Sure. [Now, you were telling me that you're in] touch with, what's 
her name? 
FE: Dale? 

RM: Adelle Eiker. Is that who's doing it? 

FE: No, it's Dale. Adelie is Arlene's sister, but Arlene's dead new. 

Dale Rodrique is her name. She was married but she's getting a divorce 

and I don't know whether she is keeping her own name 

RM: And she's doing a history of the Darroughs? 

FE: Well, she wants to do it on her family. There's something she 

25 



wanted me to help her find. You might know something about that - 
Centennial Magazine or scmething? There was a story about Grandma 
Darrough? 

RM: I don't know about that. 
FE: I don't, either. 

RM: There was a story about the Darroughs in the Nevadan in the Review^ 
Journal 2 years ago. I have that - in fact, I got it from Betty [Holts] . 
FE: Does it say that Grandma Darxough found the first gold nugget in 
Round Mountain? 

RM: I think it might mention that. 

FE: Well, she'd give anything to have a copy of that. 

RM: I could xec ner have one of mine. I made copies of Betty's copy. 

But it was 1988 - it's pretty recent. 

FE: I think Dale would love to have that if it gives any of the spring's 
history. 

RM: I've been collecting a lot of information on that. I don't know if 
you knew Curly Gocrabs up there - Norman Gocmbs. He's told me a lot about 
the history of Round Mountain. 
FE: Is Norman still in Round Mountain? 

RM: No, he's in Tonopah. I have a lengthy interview with him. He knows 
a lot about mining and he knew all those people in Round Mountain. 
FE: He was there at the same time I was, and Bill Hammond and Bobby 
Oocrobs. 

RM: I didn't know Bill. 

FE: Bill died - both Old Bill and the son. They were all there at the 
same time I was. 

RM: Who were your students at Darrough' s? 



26 



FE: I had the 2 Darrough kids, Lee and Arlene, and then Indian children. 
Then I had seme of the Darrough youngsters that belonged to another 
Darrough family. I can't remember his name now - they lived up in 
Millett. I think they didn't have a school at Millett then. I didn't 
have as many youngsters . I 've forgotten how many I had there new. 
KM: So your class wasn't as big as it was over at lone? 
FE: No. And I didn't have as many grades. 
KM: So it was actually easier, wasn't it? 
FE: It was much easier. 
KM: What did they pay you? 

FE: Gosh, about the same - probably $135 or scroething. 
KM: Did you pay them rocm and board? 

FE: I paid roan and board, yes. I think it was $30 a month. 

KM: So you were saving more money down at Darrough' s? 

FE: Oh sure. Of course there, too, they depended on that for part of 

their income- Times were tough in those days. If you didn't live 

through it you don't realize it. 

KM: I've heard about it frcro ny father but I knew we can't really . . . 
FE: Yes. You have no idea how scarce money was. For instance, the 
banks closed when ity mother had died, but I didn't know it at the time. 
Betty had a car and seme way she had an in with the Bergs in Round 
{fountain. She wanted me to go into Reno with her for Thanksgiving. So I 
said, "Well, if you can furnish the car and the money . . . " I said, "I 
don't have any money. M That was after the banks closed and we just 
didn't have any money. We didn't have any money at all. 

She borrowed enough. Anyway, we got into Reno for Thanksgiving. I 
think she got the gas at Bergs' in Round {fountain on credit. Of course, 



27 



we paid it later. 

RM: You still had your car though, but you didn't drive it because you 
had no gas? 

FE: You'd drive a little, but you didn't take a trip. You didn't do 
anything extra. 

RM: When was it that the banks closed? Was that after Roosevelt was 
elected or before? 

EE: It must have been '32 or '33. It was in the spring. 
RM: And they were closed for several ironths? 

FE: We didn't get any money for several months. I don't remember 
whether the banks were open but we couldn't get any money. 
RM: So you weren't getting paid and any money you had in the bank you 
couldn't get out. 

FE: No. I lost money in the bank in Reno. 
RM: You never got it back? 
FE: No. 

RM: Hew much did you lose? 

FE: Not much, [because] I didn't have much. 

RM: Was it one of George Wingfield's banks? 

FE: That's right. And I'll stick up for George Wingfield. My father 
was a cattleman and sheepman and I knew that [Wingfield] loaned people 
money to buy all those cattle and sheep when things were high. Well, the 
next day the bottom fell out of things. If Wingfield didn't loan money 
to those people to feed their stock, he would never get his money back. 
I really feel, if they hadn't caught up with him, nobody would have lost 
a nickel. Hiey caught up with him in Tonopah, by the way. 



28 



CHAPTER THREE 



FE: Ralph Denton rementers this too; he's an attorney here. He had 
asked ire, "What did you think about Wingfield?" and I said the same 
things to him. 

And he said, "I krcw that's true, too." Because he was just 
starting out his practice in Elko at that time. He said that the bank in 
Reno, First National (Which wasn't a Wingfield bank) was going to 
foreclose on all those people around Elko. Mr. Sewell, who had grocery 
stores in Reno (I didn't know he had a bank at that time) , came up and 
picked up all these mortgages. And nobody lost. You had to knowr a 
little bit about this background to feel that they were remiss in closing 
Wingfield out. I'm sure nobody would have lost anything and he would 
have paid out. It was another period. 
RM: It was. So you cut the school term short? 
FE: A month short. 

RM: Did you get your money before you left? 

FE: It seems to me it went into the summer. I don't knew, I always went 
heme every summer. 

RM: It sounds like it happened in your second year at the springs. 
FE: Oh yes. It was my second year and then I don't think the school 
ever operated after that. I think that was the end of the school. 
RM: And did you use the same textbooks at Darrough's that you used at 
lone? 

FE: Yes. I think it was every 7 years that they changed the books. So 
it would be the same books. 

RM: Is there anything that stands out in your mind about the classroom? 

29 



FE: It was a one-rocm school. I don't think it was as well-equipped or 
as nice as the one in lone. Ihat one was a nice bui l d in g. And whatever 
you needed to work with, they would get for you. 
KM: And did the school at lone have electricity? 

FE: Well, just at night. When we had our programs I think we did. When 
we had our school . . . well, you went from 9:00 till 4:00 in those days. 
KM: So they did have it? 

FE: I think they did. I don't j^rerter, really. But we had to have 
seme kind of light when we did our school program, so they probably had 
it in the schoolhouse. 

KM: You didn't have lights at Darrough's, did you? 

FE: No. We had carbide lights. They had those at the Bowler place too. 

It came from tanks seme way or another. 

KM: Oh, it was acetylene? 

FE: Yes, that type of system. 

KM: I'll be darned. Did it work pretty well? 

FE: Yes. It was fine. 

KM: That's the first I've heard of them. 

FE: It was fine, but not as good as electricity. You had gasoline 
lanterns and lamps, and they were good. In ny day, I don't remattoer 
having to use the kerosene lamp. 
KM: You never did use those? 

FE: We did an the ranch, seme, but to read and generally speaking, we 
used gasoline lamps. 

KM: And you just had a rocm at Darrough's, didn't you? You didn't have 

a cookstove and all that? 

FE: No, I lived with the family. 



30 



RM: What family members were there at Darrough's? 

FE: Kate was the mother and Ray was the father and then there was Dewey, 
who was not a normal person, really. 
RM: He was retarded, wasn't he? 

FE: Well, something was wrong. He had a big head. He was certainly not 
a harmful person. He lived with his mother - Grandma Darrough. There 
was an old fellow they called Pasguale (I can't remember what his real 
name was) . He cooked for himself, I think - I don't think he ever ate 
with us. 

RM: Did they have children? 

FE: Arlene and Lee were their children. 

RM: How old were they then? 

FE: Lee was about a second grader and Arlene was in the seventh grade. 
There were 2 or 3 Darroughs from the other family . . . funny, I can't 
think of his name to save my soul. He was up at Millett and it seems to 
me his wife came down and lived in a little house right by Pasquale and 
had their children there in school. 

RM: And the swimming pool was there at that time, wasn't it? 

FE: Oh yes. And it had a roof on it then. 

RM: The roof burned down, didn't it? 

FE: I think it burned. That was long after I had gone. 

RM: Was the bathhouse there then? 

FE: Yes. 

RM: So you could take baths and everything right there? 

FE: Oh sure. It was a good swimming pool. The water was warn; it was 

nice. 

RM: You could swim there any time, couldn't you - I mean, in the middle 



31 



of the winter? 

EE: Sure. It was really good. The one hot spring north of the house 
was the one that was so hot. Now that still spouts way up. It was very, 
very hot - it would scald you. Then there was the spring where we had 
our drinking water, and that was very cold. That was on the west of the 
house. I don't knew what they do now [for water] . I think Luther has 
water in the house new. In fact, I think they heat with that hot water 
new. 

KM: I think I've heard that, yes. 

FE: I think he fixed that up in Ray and Kate's place when they went into 
Tbnopah. 

RM: Where was Luther at this time? 

FE: He was there but he lived with his mother. 

RM: He wasn't married to Lillian then? 

FE: No, [not until] long after this. 

RM: Would you tell me a little bit about Grandma Darrough? 
FE: Oh, she was a nice person. I always got along with her. 
RM: How old was she when you were there? 

FE: She was an old lady - really quite old. I don't think she lived too 
much longer after I left. 

RM: Do you recall her telling stories about the old days or anything? 
FE: Oh, a little. 

RM: Do you recall any of the stories? 

FE: Not particularly. You know, the Farringtons were there, and Rogers' 
was the place just below the springs. 
RM: Did you know Brama Rogers? 

FE: Ernna was just below MfcClouds. But they vere 2 separate families. 

32 



RM: Right, but they were all related. Tell me sane more about Grandma 
Darrough. Do you recall any anecdotes about her? 
FE: Not especially. I started to say that Ben Rogers died and left 
Grace and Pete and Rene. Sometimes when we'd all be gathered around the 
stove at the hotel, Grandma would start to talk and she would figure that 
Ben Rogers was sitting right over there, and he'd been dead for a good 
many years. 

RM: Is that right? But she was a little bit out of it? 

FE: Yes, she was a little out of it. 

RM: So she was a little out of it when you knew her? 

FE: Yes. But not to the extent that anybody realized . . . That's the 

only thing I ever thought was kind of funny. No, she was nice. They all 

got along well . I never heard any problems . 

RM: And she was doing her crocheting and everything? 

FE: Oh sure. And reading. She read a lot and she took care of the 

boys. She did all the laundry and cooking - everything for the beys. 

Luther never ate with us. 

RM: Vftry? 

FE: I think because Grandma Darrough took care of him over at her place. 
RM: Oh, I see. So Grandma didn't take her meals with you folks over in 
the house? 

FE: No, she ran her own house. She was still able to do that. 
RM: Luther was a grewn man then, wasn't he? 
FE: Yes. My feeling was that they always got along very well. 
RM: What do you recall about Emma Rogers? 

FE: I didn't know Emma that well, but everybody always went to all the 
social furcrtions. I can't remember whether there was anybody living up 



33 



there with Emma at that tine or not. I'm sure she wasn't there alone - 
she must have had somebody around. There wasn't too much difference in 
age between me and Pete and Rene. 

RM: Yes, you were all about the same age. I interviewed both Pete and 
Rene. 

FE: Do you know Mary, Pete's wife? 
RM: Yes. 

FE: She was my eighth grader in lone - Manzini was her maiden name. 
RM: Is that ri#it? 

FE: I haven't seen them in a long time. One time I stopped at Carver's 
and Pete and Mary were there, and I hadn't seen them since she was in 
school. 

RM: Isn't that scraething? 
FE: We had a good visit. 

RM: They live in Fallon - I was over at their house. 

FE: She was a very bright girl. Not that she isn't happy, but she was a 
girl who could have done a lot. 

RM: Is that right? She had a very high intelligence? 

FE: She had the work skills to ccrobine with it. She was a very nice 

youngster. 

RM: Were there any other Manzini children in your class? 

FE: I think there was just one boy - Mary and this brother. Jocko was 

the father's name. I think he worked in the Mercury Mine. 

RM: Was the Mercury Mine a pretty big operation? 

FE: Not really, but apparently they were making a living. It seems to 
me it must have closed, even when I was there, because another family 
moved to Salt Lake. Mansfield, I think their name was. My aunt had 



34 



taught in Imlay and she had had one of their family when she was teaching 
in Imlay years before. 
KM: Where's Imlay? 

FE: In northern Nevada, south of Wiimenucca. It's a railroad town. 
KM: Tell me about one of the dances at Darrough's. 

FE: You started in about 8:00 and you danced all nigfrit. The Acrees were 
there with the music, and sometimes we had little dance cards that you 
filled out and sometimes you just danced. You never missed a dance then. 
KM: What kind of dances did you do? 

FE: Waltzes and fox trots and the varsoviennes . We didn't do square 
dancing. I think about it now, but we never did do any square dancing. 
KM: Hew much did it cost to go to a dance at Darrough's? 
FE: I think it was $1 or $2.50. I think that included the midnight 
supper, but I don't remember. Charlie McCloud was the one who always 
squired the schoolteachers around. And Charlie was . . . let's see, I 
was 19 or 20, and I guess by that time Charlie was 41. He was very much 
of a gentleman and a fine escort. 
KM: You mean you were his date? 

FE: Oh yes. Charlie would always take me to the dances. He followed 
all the schoolteachers - I just happened to be the schoolteacher at that 
time. He was a good dancer and very much of a gentleman. You could go 
places with Charlie and know that your reputation wasn't at stake - you 
wouldn't be questioned. His sister usually went along, too. I think she 
just died recently - Gladys told me that in California. We'd come back 
and stay at the McClouds' then, and he'd take me back to Darrough's the 
next day. 

KM: Oh, you mean when you vrere at lone? 

35 



FE: Well, not at lone, bat when I was down at the Springs, •This was 
when we'd go to Austin for a dance. His sister Hattie would always be 
along, and his mother was alive then. 
KM: And their ranch was called the McCloud Ranch? 

FE: Same people who lived here had it and then they sold it. Of course, 
the old road was so different. I'm trying to think of the first ranch up 
there. It was about the third ranch ccming in from Austin and it had a 
nice red brick house on it. 

KM: Was he the owner, or did it belong to his family? 
FE: There was Clarence; I didn't know the father. Ihe mother was still 
living when I was there and then Clarence was Charlie's brother, and then 
Hattie. Uiere were the 3 of than that I knew. I think Clarence is dead 
now. Charlie's dead now, too. He married a woman in Austin - scroeone 
his own age - when he finally married. 

KM: I see. But before that he preferred the younger girls? 

FE: Well, I think he enjoyed going, and as I say, he was a perfect 

gentleman. Vfe had a lot of fun, you knew. It was nice to go with 

somebody. And usually we'd have a carload. It wasn't one of these 

sentimental things - everyone got together and went. It was fun. 

RM: When you danced at Darrough's, was liquor served there? 

FE: I think they had a bar. But as I say, you did not leave the dance 

hall. 

KM: Yes, they controlled it. 

FE: If anybody who came into the hall showed that they'd had anything to 

drink . . .I'm sure they probably all drank, but I didn't. 

RM: Did they go swimming at Darrough's at the dances? 

FE: No, I don't think so. At that time, the mine at Round Mountain was 



36 



working. There were 3 mines - Jefferson and Nevada Porphyry . . . 
RM: (It's Round Mountain Gold now.) 

FE: There were a lot of fellows that I knew from school out there, young 
engineers. 

RM: Oh, there were? Guys that you'd known at the university? 

FE; Yes. Vfe had a lot of fun. There were a lot of young people and 

they were all nice kids and we really had good times. 

RM: Did you go into Tbncpah much? 

FE: Whenever there was a dance. 

RM: That's the only time you went? 

FE: Occasionally we'd go otherwise. But there really wasn't much reason 
to go to Tonopah. Once in a while you'd go in to a shew, but that was 
about it. 

RM: And Goldf ield was even harder to get to? 

FE: Well, Goldf ield really didn't have much at that time. They still 
had the dances and we'd go to them. Their charity ball was before my 
time, when they used to get music in from San Francisco. They were 
really elegant affairs, and the ones in Tonopah v^re, too. Even during 
my day everybody had special evening dresses and those were the big 
occasions - particularly the charity ball. 

RM: Is that right? Did you have a radio when you v^re at lone? 

FE: No, and never a TV. My first TV was when I came to Sloan. 

RM: You taught at Sloan? 

FE: Yes. That's where I met my husband. 

RM: So you didn't have a radio at Round Mountain either. 

FE: No. It seems to me that Darrough's had a battery set. But I don't 

remember it being any particular part of our life. When we were there, 



37 



we'd play cards - 500 - more than anything. Round Mountain was the 

stopping place for anybody who couldn't get on heme, so there would 

always be somebody to play cards with. 

KM: When you just had spare time what did you do? 

FE: Ride horseback. And we vised to swim. 

KM: Did you have Indian children in your class at Darrough's? 

FE: I think I had 2. All those ranches had an Indian family, and they 

would work when they needed extra help. That was true on Reese River, 

too. 

KM: What sticks in your mind about the ccranunity of Round Mountain when 
you were at Darrough's? 

FE: It was a nice oanmanity, too. Of course, as I say, country 
entertainment was dancing. We had a bridge club in Round Mountain. I 
think we had 12 tables. It was different than it is today. People lived 
in houses, they didn't live in those trailers- And they didn't have the 
canp all torn up with mine dunps and so forth. It's a shame, I think - 
it was a nice little mining camp then. 

Happy Gibson was a teacher there. He played the piano but he 
couldn't carry a tune in a basket. It was funny, when he'd ask you to 
dance he'd say, "Now you count and get me started. " Then he could count 
the steps. A waltz was 1, 2, 3. He could play anything because he could 
read music, but he had no feeling for music at all. It's funny Betty 
didn't tell you about him. She kept in touch with him for years. He 
finally went back to Washington, D.C. 
RM: Did you know the Bergs very well? 

FE: Yes. Will was still alive, and so was Lillian. We spent a lot of 
time at their house - that was our center of entertainment. Getta was 



38 



their daughter and Dan was their son. Dan and Rene and I were very close 
to the same age (I was a little older than they were) . We used to get 
around . . . and Getta played the piano very well. So we'd sing around 
the piano. [We did] all the things that you do in the country that make 
for entertainment. 

KM: How would you describe Lillian? 

FE: I liked Lillian. Will was a lot older than Lillian and I think that 
he just kind of treated her like a child. 
RM: In what sense? 

FE: I cton't think Lillian ever paid a bill or was quite sure just what 
they were going to have to eat or anything else. I think Will just 
handled everything. He was a very nice person. But he never entered 
[in] . . . he'd go to bed. Lillian was so much younger that she'd just 
join in with the young folks. 
RM: They had a store - the Berg Mercantile. 

FE: No, I don't think they had anything to do with that. There was 
another Berg [who also] had a garage. I can't think of his name right 
now. Betty knew all of that. She knew more about Round MDuntain than I 
did, because she lived there for so long. 
RM: You didn't know Blackjack Raymond, did you? 

FE: I probably knew who he was, but I don't know anything about him. 

RM: Did you get to Manhattan very often? 

FE: Oh, when they had a dance. 

RM: Where did you have your bridge? 

FE: We had a canmunity hall in Round Mountain. It was just across the 
street south fron the Bergs' . I don't think anything is left there like 
it was. Last time I was through I just was appalled. 

39 



KM: When were you through the last time? 

FE: Oh, Betty and I went, maybe 3 or 4 years ago. Shock [Berg] was 

there and they were living in the old house. 
KM: Do you remember Shirley Ann Berg [ Lo fthoaae]? 
FE: Shirley Ann was a baby when I was there. 
RM: Did you know a man named Little Kelsay? 

FE: He was a great friend of the Bergs' . Be lived at Their ranch. 

RM: What stands out in your mind about Manhattan? 

FE: Always the dances, [laughs] I was young rhm. 

RM: How about Belmont - did you ever get over these? 

FE: I was over there, but not during that period. I gwww Belaont was 

quite a camp in its day. One of the Rogers' relatives li*ed with the 

Rogers and she was from Belmont. 

RM: There was an Anderson who was from Belmont. 

FE: That could have been it. But anyway, when she died I w alaost 
slated to do the funeral service, and I can't rx we a tx* %tert happened . I 
think the traveling minister came through or something so I dufa't have 
to do that. You know, the country schoolteacher did everything. 
RM: Oh, is that right? 

FE: You had to do whatever they asked you to do. 

RM: What were some of the things they would ask you to do? 

FE: Well, the Sunday school and things like that. I reae a faea that 

funeral in particular because I wasn't quite sure what I was going to do, 

but I was saved by the bell. 

RM: What are seme other things that they might have called an a teacher 
to do? 

FE: Another thing was to measure hay. 



40 



KM: Measure hay? 

FE: Do you know how to figure measuring hay? [chuckles] 
RM: I have no idea. 

FE: I don't reroenter anymore, but when I left hone I had the formula for 
measuring hay because a lot of those farmers would give you the 
measurements for the stack and you were supposed to figure out hew many 
tons they had in it. 

RM: Is that right? Well, you were the educated person in the catiminity, 
and you were expected to be able to do those things. 
FE: Yes. 

RM: What other things would the teacher . . . ? 

FE: Practically anything that they asked you to do, if it was within 
reason, you did. You were supposed to be qualified to do these things, 
so . . . 

RM: And men never irade improper advances toward the teacher, did they? 
FE: Oh no. If you behaved yourself men didn't make improper advances 
toward any young wenan in those days. That was up to you. You set the 
standards and then they knew where they stood with you. There was a very 
different moral ethic in those days than there is today. 



41 



CHAPTER POUR 



Bambi McCracken: I wanted to ask you - in lone when you would order from 
the store, you'd get goods. What kinds of things did people order? 
FE: It would be your food. 

EM: Could you get books or anything lite that? 

FE: Not particularly. I think you might have through the library in 

Fallon if you'd ever tried to. 

BM: And you would get soaps and . . . 

FE: Yes, whatever you needed. He had a general store. 

BM: So people really got just the necessities. 

FE: That's right. Of course we used to go in once in a while - once in 
a while I'd ride into Fallon with Billie [Cislini]. And if you wanted 
stuff, you'd get it then. 

BM: How did you decide to go into education? Did you knew as a child 
that that was what you wanted to go into? 

FE: Well, in those days there was teaching and nursing and secreta r ial 
work. Those were about the choices that vonen had, and my whole family 
had been teachers. My aunt, my mother, my grandmother . . . everybody in 
the family had taught. 

BM: So you knew that that's what you were going to go into. 

FE: Yes, that was the choice. And teachers made more money than anybody 

else at that time. You always had a good standing. It was a good choice 

for a girl in those days. 

RM: But for a man it wasn't, was it? 

FE: No. I can't ever remember men in the lower grades at all. I can't 
even remember men principals. 

42 



KM: Is that right? Would that be true in high school, too? 

FE: No, it wasn't in high school. Mr. Von was our principal in high 

school. But there were no men in the lcwar grades. 

RM: Did you know Ert Moore? 

FE: No. 

RM: He taught in Beatty, but that was a few years later. 

FE: Well, there have been tranendous changes over the last 50 years. 

RM: What did you do after you left Darrough's? 

FE: I came down here [to the Las Vegas area] . I worked up at the lake 
[Lake Tahoe] that summer and I planned on going back to the university - 
I was going to go back and take some more credits. But then this school 
came up at Sloan. 
RM: How did you hear about it? 

FE: Through the placement bureau at the university. 
RM: Was there a tcwn at Sloan? 

FE: Yes. There were 50 kids out there. I had the first 4 grades and a 

man had the upper grades. 

RM: So you came dcwn here in 1934? 

FE: Yes. 

RM: Was it just a dirt road out to Sloan? 

FE: Oh, it was a dirt road all the way from Tonopah. It seems to me it 

was paved to Austin, but I can't reneraber. 

RM: No, it wasn't. They didn't pave that till the '50s. 

FE: To Austin? 

RM: Yes, fran Tonopah to Austin. 

FE: No, I'm thinking [about the road] from Tonopah to Reno. 
RM: Oh, OK. 



43 



FE: I think it was paved then. There are 2 ways in ... I think it was 
paved. But I can remember What a terrible road it was coning from Austin 
down here. It was awful. 
KM: A lot of flat tires? 

FE: ffell, I didn't have them, but it was very corrugated. It was just a 

mess of a road to drive on. 

KM: Hbw long did you teach at Sloan? 

FE: A year. I married at the end of the first year. 

RM: Who did you marry? 

FE: I married Bill Ellis. 

KM: And where did you meet him? 

FE: Out there. He was a mill superintendent. 

RM: What were they milling there? 

FE: Line. That lime plant - including all their holdings - is new the 

biggest lime plant west of the Mississippi. 

KM: Is that right? What do they do with the lime? 

FE: They use it for stabilizing roads, making plaster, sane medicinal 

purposes and fluxing steel. 

RM: Is that right? Is it gypsum? 

FE: No. There's a difference between lime and gypsum. I think they use 
gypsum more in wallboard and things like that. I don't knew what else 
they do with it, but the plant (there was a plant at Sonora then) 
[production] was used for medicinal purposes, it was that pure. But most 
of the lime out here goes into building. This road stabilization came in 
about the time that my husband retired. But [sane of the main uses are] 
plaster and wallboard and refining sugar. So there are lots of uses for 
it. 



44 



KM: Do they ship it out on the railroad? 
FE: Yes. 

KM: Did you teach after you married? 

FE: No, I just finished the year. 

KM: And that was the end of your teaching career? 

FE: That was the end of ny teaching career. 

KM: And then did you live in Sloan? 

FE: We lived in Sloan about 17 years. 

KM: And then you moved to Las Vegas? 

FE: They closed the canp. When we lived out there they furnished the 

housing and your water and your lights, and all you had to do was pay 

your grocery bill, so it was a good job and a good place to save. 

KM: You could save a lot, yes. How many people were in the carrp there? 

FE: We had 312 sugar stamps [during World War II] . We had 3 tables of 

bridge out there. 

KM: Where was the camp located? 

FE: Right under the hill; there's nothing left there. The Sloan on the 
highway isn't the Sloan [I lived in]. They've taken all the houses away. 
I think there's just a watchman left down there but it's still producing 
very well. 

KM: Is the mine that mountain they're taking the top off on the right as 
you go out? 

FE: That's right. And the town was at the base of that mountain. We 
had a lot of Mexicans who helped. The Maxicans lived on one side of canp 
and we lived on the other. They were good kids, too. Gee, they were 
good youngsters - all of them. 
EM: Did you miss teaching after you got married? 

45 



and ■ • • 



FE: No, not really. I enjoyed it when I « trarhing. I lite young 
people and I like children and I really enjoyed work as long as I was 
doing it. 

RM: How many children did you have? 

FE: I had 2. My first baby died and then I have a daughter, Annette. 
RM: And when was she born? 
FE: In 1945. She was 3 when we ncwed 
RM: So she went to school here in Las 
FE: Yes. 

RM: And you say you bought property an 
FE: Vfell, ny husband and his father boa£* this 20 acres in 1921. 
RM: And it was bounded on Charleston ? 

FE: Charleston and Ellis, as it is ow, and dam where the church is and 
then the trailer court. 
RM: And Ellis is named after your 
FE: Yes. We subdivided it. 
RM: And when did you do that? 
FE: Fbrty-four, I guess. 
RM: Was it hard to do? 
FE: Tcm Campbell was the one who 
made more money if we'd have waited. 
RM: What size of lots did you mate? 
FE: They were 2-1/2-acre lots. 

RM: And then sanebody has subdivided the* again, haven't they? 
FE: They have. I still have the acre here - a com m ercial acre. It's a 
little bit short of an acre but it's a ant ial acre. And you knew, we 
couldn't cut them down. The original rules were that we weren't supposed 



to do it. I think we'd have 



46 



to cut than down but they certainly 
KM: This was out in the country 
EE: There wasn't a thing on this 
house down in the middle of this 20 
KM: Is that rigfct? When did his 
FE: In 1905 the Younts came to 
grandfather's people came to 
KM: His people are the Younts? 
FE: Yes. 

KM: I didn't know that. I've 
Pahrump. 

FE: Oh, have you? His grandfather s 
KM: Was his grandfather Joseph 
FE: No, his grandfather was Sam 
KM: Oh, what a nice picture! 
wasn't he? 

FE: That's right. And this is his 
Yount. 

KM: What was her name? 
FE: Emma, [but I don't know her 
KM: Was she a local varan? 
FE: I doubt it. The Younts cam 
Valley. 

KM: What I know about the Younts I* 
at the San Bernardino County 
FE: Jim and Delia. Two of the 
RM: Did your husband knew his 



things. 
bpogfat it, wasn't it? 
: tbe rracks except for an old 
Bill's fatter lived in. 
com to las Vegas? 
I think Bill's 



cm a book on the history of 

cae in in 1877. 

this was Bill's grandmother, 
was Joseph Yount 's son, 



Bill's grandmother married Sam 



Pendleton, frcm Grand Pound 

out of the Fisk Collection 
Delia Wiite's [writings], 
rtet ever lived. 



47 



FE: Oh sure. 

RM: Did you know Sam? 

FE: Sure. 

RM: Tell me about him. 

FE: Well, he was an old retired man when I knar km, and he had 
remarried. Bill's grandmother died and he Married a woman from around 
Moapa. 

RM: What was her name? 

FE: I can't think of what her maiden name was. There was quite a family 
of them. 

RM: Did you know John Yount? 
FE: Yes. 

RM: Tell me about John Yount. He had the ranch that Roland Wiley 
bought, didn't he? 

FE: John had Roland's place and Bill was in San Bernardino and then 
there was another one (I didn't know him) . There were Rill and John and 
I think his name was Ed. Bill was the one \tx> had the orange groves and 
really did . . . 

RM: You mean down in San Bernardino? 

FE: In San Bernardino. 

RM: So he didn't stay in the area? 

FE: I don't know ... I didn't ever know him. 

RM: But Sam and John stayed around here, didn't they? 

FE: Oh, John died, I think, in Pahmnp. And he had an Indian wife. 

RM: Was her name Belle? 

FE: I don't know what her name was. 

RM: He had a common- law wife at the end of his life and there was a 



48 



dispute over ownership [of the ranch Roland Wiley bought] . 

FE: That was the Indian wife. I don't think he ever had any other wife. 

I never heard them talk about another wife. 

KM: And Sam was quite a mining man, wasn't he? 

FE: Yes. He was in the Goodsprings area with mining. I still have the 
Boss. 

RM: You own the Boss Mine? What did they mine there? 
FE: They mined platinum and copper, I think. 

RM: Is that right? It was one of the few platiram mines in America, 
isn't it? 

FE: There were 4 in the state of Nevada. And temporarily I have it 
leased, for the first tine in 50 years. Whether I get any money this 
month or not, I don't know. [I have to get] caught up on all those back 
taxes . [chuckles ] 

RM: The Boss Mine was a pretty good mine, wasn't it? 
FE: Yes, it was. It produced, I think, around $1 million in platinum. 
I don't know about it that far back, but Bill's grandfather owned it with 
the First Security Bank in Los Angeles. Now when that came about, I 
don't know. But when Pop Yount died, he willed his interest in the Boss 
to Bill. At the museum in Henderson there was an article posted that 
said sane Indian located the Boss. I suppose he came into the store and 
made a deal with Sam Yount. Bill's grandfather had the store, the post 
office, the hotel and everything in Goodsprings. I kind of gathered fron 
that that maybe some way through the store they made a deal. 
RM: Oh, that's how they got the Boss? 

FE: Yes. Maybe he got money fron the Boss. But the big one that made 
the money for so long was the Yellow Pine. 



49 



RM: Where Is that? 

FE: The mill and everything are what's left in Goodsprings now. 
RM: Oh, I see. Then where was the Yellcw Pine Mine? 
FE: I don't know where the mine was. 
RM: I think it was on Mount Potosi. 
FE: It could be. 

RM: The Boss Mine looks down on Sandy Valley, doesn't it? 
FE: Right. Jim and Delia Fisk were up there; he was the boss over there 
for a long time. Aunt Delia lived in a tent up at the Boss and had 
orange boxes for furniture. 

RM: Is that right? Fisk was a mining man, and he did quite well, didn't 
he? 

FE: Yes. 

RM: There's a wing at the museum [in Redlands, California] that he 
donated money for. 

FE: He was quite a collector, you know. He was very interested in 
history. Yes, I knew that they had done that. 
RM: Did you know Fisk? 
FE: Oh sure; very well. 
RM: What was he like? 

FE: He was a very intelligent person and always was interested in 
history. He would lecture to the Boy Scouts and do that sort of thing 
after he retired. But he worked with the mines here for as long as I can 
ever remember. I think that's where he met Aunt Delia. Harsha White was 
her father. 

RM: And what was her mother's name? 
FE: Maude, I believe. 



50 



KM: Maude Yount. And what was Joseph Yount's wife's name - Margaret, I 
believe. 

FE: That wDuld be Sam's mother. I knew there were Delia and Sam and 
then it was Nellie and Fannie and John. 

KM: What happened to the other kids? Did they stay in the area? 

FE: No. Fannie and her husband had a saloon in Needles. And Nellie 

married a doctor and she was back east for a long time. Then when their 

husbands died, they lived together in L.A. I think Aunt Nellie was 90 

the last time they came up here and they drove by themselves. 

KM: Is that right? Amazing! 

FE: They were amazing. 

KM: That was a tough road, too. 

FE: Wall, the idea at 90 that you could do this. But they were very 
nice. I always enjoyed both of them. Ifcey were fun to . . . they kind 
of liked to drink. They never got drunk, I don't mean that, but they 
kind of liked a good stiff drink. 

KM: How did Harsha White wind up with the Manse Ranch? 
FE: Harsha married Maude. 

KM: But why didn't Joseph Yount leave the ranch to the other kids, too? 
Or maybe he did and he bought them out or something. 

FE: I don't know. Ohey went into San Bernardino. That seemed to be the 

ultimate. San Bernardino was the place all these people went. 

KM: That was where they sent their kids to school - it was the only 

school. 

FE: That's right. And that's where they were headed when they got 
stalled in Pahrump. 

KM: Yes. The story of how he landed in Pahrunp is true, to your 



51 



knowledge? That the Indians killed his draft horses and he had to . . . 
FE: They took all the stock. They'd gotten that far and then apparently 
it was a good place to land. Of course there was a lot of artesian water 
over there at that time. 

KM: That's right. So he traded some stock, I think, to the Jordan 
brothers for the Manse Ranch. 
FEz I don't knew about that. 

RM: One account I read said he was originally heading for Tombstone, 
Arizona, but then changed his mind when he got down this way and decided 
to go to . . . 

FE: I always heard that he was headed for San Bernardino - that's the 
story that Bill always told roe. Mrs. Fredericksons in Qoodsprings did a 
thing on them. 

RM: Are they still in Qoodsprings? 

FE: No. (They just had a reunion; to went over there yesterday. ) I 

think she's someplace in Oregon now - the one who wrote this. The mother 

apparently wrote the account originally. 

RM: Do you knew Deke and Celesta Lowe? 

FE: Well, I just know of them. Bill knew . . . 

RM: They knew a lot about the history of the area. 

FE: Oh, they do. But they weren't always right either. 

RM: No. I don't think anybody's always right. 

FE: No. Because I knew Bill and Leonard Fayle would read some of these 
things that they came up with and they would knew [feel that] wherever 
they got their information, it wasn't exactly accurate. 
RM: How would you describe Sam Yount? 

FE: He just was a very nice person. Of course, when I knew him he was 



52 



an old man. He had rentals and property in L.A. They were very well off 
when they left Gbcrisprings, you see. They made money on the mines. He 
retired when he was about 45 or 50 and moved into L.A. I know he always 
had an office down an Hill Street and he had rental property around L.A. 
KM: Is that right? Now that's Sam Yount? 
FE: Yes. 

KM: But John Yount stuck around, didn't he? 
FE: He stayed out there in the desert. 

KM: He was the only one of the children who stayed an the desert, wasn't 
he? 

FE: As far as I knew. Of course, he never had any family that I ever 
heard of. Tte brothers that were in San Bernardino had fruit. They 
raised apricots. I've heard Bill tell about how they dried apricots, and 
they were salable. Ihey had oranges and I think Bill did the same thing. 
He raised oranges in those . . . but then the other brother vrorked for 
seme big outfit that dealt with oranges. He was a plant supervisor. 
RM: And you don't knew where Sam Yount met his wife and where she was 
frcm? 

FE: No, she was frcm around here. I don't know where Sam met her. She 

had been married a number of times. 

KM: And then your husband was Sam's . . . 

FE: No, he was really Emma's grandchild. She had been married to an 
Ellis - I think that was her first marriage. Bill and an Austin [Ellis] 
were the offspring of that marriage. Austin was a veterinarian. He used 
to take care of all the animals for the M3M Studios in L.A. 
RM: Is that rigfrt? I'll be darned. 

FE: Later he moved down into Texas and went into the pharmacy business. 



53 



In those days, I guess they didn't have to have the education they do 
today to do these things. 

KM: So your husband was not a blood relative of the Younts. 
EE: No. 

KM: OK. His graiKtaother had married Sam later on. 
FE: That's right. And then she married a Smithson and there was one 
child by that marriage. There were a lot of mines between Needles and 
Nipton at that time and I think she met this Smithson there some way. I 
think they ran boardinghouses and did things like that. I'm not sure 
where she met Pop Yount, but she was the worker. Sam was a good fellow 
but kind of a public relations person. 

RM: Is that right? But they owned the hotel in Qoodsprings? 

FE: Yes. They had the store and a hotel and Emma did most of the work. 

RM: And they got the Boss Mine from an Indian? 

FE: I don't know that, but I was reading in that article out there that 
an Indian was the one that discovered it. New hew they came by it, I 
don't know. Bill would have known, but I don't. Sam had scmething to do 
with the Yellow Pine, because I've heard the members of the family say, 
"Well, the Yellow Pine put us through school. " 
RM: Ihe Yellcw Pine was a lead mine, wasn't it? 

FE: Lead and zinc, I imagine. I think the Boss was the only one that 
had platinum. 

RM: Was there a mine called the Columbia? 

FE: Oh, there are a lot of them over there. Bill would knew but I don't 
knew about that. Anna might know most of those - I think Leonard hung 
onto all that stuff. Now his daughter and her husband are owners. 
RM: And how many children did . . . 



54 



FE: Sam and Erat^a didn't have any, and John didn't have any. Bill, I 
think, had 2 girls and the other brother had sane children - the one who 
worked with the oranges. He was the head of a packing house. Delia 
never had any children. 

RM: So they weren't a very fertile bunch, were they? 

FE: No. Delia and Jim were the type that should have had a big family 

because they really were wonderful people. 

RM: Jim Fisk did quite well, didn't he? 

FE: They all did pretty well. I guess the first time I ever went down 

there, I was about 24. It was right after Bill and I were married. They 

belonged to the Old-Timer's Club, so we went to this dance and tried to 

do the Shoddish and all these. He was a pretty good dancer. It was 

really a lot of fun, we had a great time, [chuckles] But they were just 

genuinely nice people; good people. They understood youngsters and they 

really were always active in the old-timers group. 

RM: Did Sam and your husband buy this acreage out here? 

FE: Not Sam. It was Bill's own father, Ellis. I think the first 

owners of this were Craigen and Pike. I'm not sure about Craigen, but 

Pike ... I looked this up because of water more than anytJiing. I 

think they took it up as homestead property a long way back. 

RM: It's amazing. When you folks moved onto this property there was 

very little out here then? 

FE: There wasn't anything on this side of the tracks. Mathis bought, I 
think, one of our first ones and then Purely bought the lots over here and 
then there was Dr. Swank out here. I can't rematter all of them. But 
that was along the front there. And thai they started building. 
RM: And then that was the beginning of the building out this way? 



55 



FE: This has only started to go within about the last 5 or 6 years. 
KM: What do you mean "go"? 

FE: Well, before development was working out toward Henderson and out 
towards the Strip. 

KM: You nean all this development to the west. 

FE: The whole area. All this development is very recent. 

KM: What do you think of it? 

FE: I think it's all right but I hope they aren't overdoing it. That's 
what I worry about. I mean, when you have all these vacant buildings 
around it's time to quit. 



56 



Acree, Bert, Millie, Dale & Tan, 

17-18, 35 
Albian College, 2 
Austin, NV, 4, 17, 18, 19, 36, 43, 

44 

Baker, OR, 23 

bank closure, 24, 27, 28, 29 

Basic Magnesium, 4 

Beatty, NV, 23 

Belmont, NV, 40 

Berg, Dan, 39 

Berg, John, 39 

Berg, Karl "Shook," 40 

Berg, Will & Lillian, 38, 39 

Berg family, 27, 38-39, 40 

Berg Mercantile, 39 

Berlin, NV, 14 

Borland, Mary Osborn, 1, 2, 42 

Boss Mine, 49, 50, 53, 54 

Bowler, Gladys, 16-17, 35 

Bowler Ranch, 16, 30 

Brockman, Frank, 23 

Burns, OR, 1, 2 

California, 1, 23 

Campbell, Tern, 46 

Carver's Station, NV, 34 

churches, 22-23 

cinnabar mine, 5, 7, 15 

Cislini, Billy, 5, 6, 7, 12, 42 

Cislini family, 5, 9 

Cislini store, 5, 6, 9, 12, 42 

clothing, 8, 13 

Coombs, Bobby, 26 

Cocnfcs, Norman "Curly," 26 

copper, 49 

Craigen, Mr., 55 

dances, 2-3, 17-19, 21, 35-37, 38, 
39, 40 

Darrough, Arlene, 25, 27, 31 
Darrough, Dewey, 31 
Darrough, Jim (family of), 31 
Darrough, Laura Stebbins, 25, 26, 

31, 32, 33 
Darrough, Lee, 27, 31 
Darrough, Lillian, 32 
Darrough, Luther, 32, 33 
Darrough, Ray & Kate, 31, 32 
Darrough family, 19, 23, 24, 25, 

26, 30-31 
Darrough's Hot Springs, 17, 23, 24, 

29, 30, 35-36, 37-38, 43 
Denton, Ralph, 29 
Depression, 3 



Derringer brothers, 16, 21 
drinking, 18, 36, 51 
East gate, NV, 4 
education (req. for teaching) , 
2, 3 

Eiker, Adelle Darrough, 25 

electricity, 5, 8, 30 

Elko, NV, 29 

Elks charity ball, 19 

Ellis, Austin, 53 

Ellis, Bill, 37, 44, 46, 49, 52, 

53 54 55 
Ellis', William, 46, 47, 55 
ethics, 23, 41 
Fallon, NV, 4, 6, 15, 34, 42 
Farrington family, 32 
Fayle, Anna, 54 
Fayle, Leonard, 52, 54 
1st National Bank in Reno, 29 
1st Security Bank in Los Angeles, 

49 

firewood, 8, 15 
Fisherman, Annette Ellis, 46 
Fisk, Jim & Delia White, 47, 50, 
55 

Fisk Collection, San Bernardino 

Museum, 47 
Fredericksons, Mrs., 52 
Frenchmans Station, NV, 4 
Gabbs, NV, 4, 15 
Gauer, Rachel, 2 
Gibson, Happy, 38 
gold, 15, 26 

Goldfield, NV, 17, 19, 37 
Goldfield charity ball, 37 
Goldfield Hotel, 19 
Goodsprings, NV, 47, 49, 50, 52, 
53, 54 

Goodsprings hotel, 49, 54 

Green Castle, MD, 1 

Gray, Gull, 4 

Greeley, Andrew, 1-2 

Greeley, Laura, 35, 42 

Hammond, Bill & son, 26 

Henderson, NV, 49 

holidays, 13, 20, 22 

Holts, Bessie "Betty," 24, 26, 

27, 38, 39, 40 
horseback riding, 38 
Huf fakers, NV, 2 
Huffman, Joseph, 2, 4 
Huffman, Mary Swartout, 1, 2, 27, 

42 



57 



Huffman, William D., 1, 28 

Ichthyosaur State Park, 4, 14 

Imlay, NV, 35 

Indian Creek, NV, 6 

Indians, 5, 11, 12, 13, 27, 38, 

49, 54 
International Hotel, 19 
lone, NV, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 12, 17, 

23, 30, 42 
lone school board, 6, 7, 12, 20 
lone Valley, NV, 4 
Italian people, 6, 9, 11 
Jakowatz, Getta Berg, 38-39 
Jefferson Canyon, NV, 37 
Jordan brothers, 52 
Kesay, Fulton Little, 40 
Lake Tahoe, NV, 43 
Las Vegas, NV, 29, 43, 45, 46, 55-! 
Las Vegas Review Journal, 26 
lead, 54 
lime, 44-45 

Lofthouse, Shirley Ann Berg, 40 
Los Angeles, CA, 51, 53 
Lowe, Deke & Celesta, 52 
Lunpa, S., 6 
mail, 12 

Manhattan, NV, 39, 40 
Manse Ranch, 51, 52 
Mansfield family, 34-35 
Manzini, Jocko, 34 
Marshall, MI, 1, 2 
Mason Valley, NV, 2 
Masonic Hall, 19 
Ma this, Guy, 55 
MsCloud, Charlie, 35, 36 
McCloud, Clarence, 36 
McCloud, Hattie, 35, 36 
McCloud family, 16, 18, 32, 36 
MsKinley Park School, 4 
Mercury Mine, 34 
Mexican people, 45 
Middlegate, NV, 4 
Millett Ranch, 24, 27 
mills, 44 
miners, 7 

mining, 26, 36-37, 49, 54 

missionaries, 22-23 

Moapa, NV, 48 

movie theaters, 7 

music, 3, 17, 18, 35, 37, 38, 39 

Needles, CA, 51 

Nevada, 3, 12, 49 



Nevadan , 26 
Nevada Porphyry, 37 
newspapers, 12 
Oregon, 11 
O'Toole brothers, 21 
Pahrump, NV, 47, 48, 51-52 
Pasguale, Mr., 25, 31 
Payette, ID, 2 
Pendleton, OR, 47 
Phillips, Mr., 7 
Phillips family, 7 
Pike, Mr., 55 
platinum, 49, 54 
playing cards, 22, 38, 39 
Presbyterian church, 22, 46 
Purely, Mr., 55 

ranches, 2, 5, 6, 16, 21, 23, 38 
Redlands (CA) museum, 50 
Reese River Valley, NV, 5, 12, 15, 
17, 38 

Reno, NV, 2, 20, 27, 28, 29, 43 
roads, 4, 5, 15, 17, 43-44 
Rodreque, Adelle "Dale" Darrough, 

25, 26 
Rogers, Ben, 33 
Rogers, Emma, 32, 33-34 
Rogers, Grace, 33 
Rogers, Mary Manzini, 11, 34 
Rogers, Pete, 33, 34 
Rogers family, 32-33 
Round Mountain, NV, 24, 26, 27, 

36-37, 38, 39 
Round Mountain ccxtrainity hall, 39 
Salt Lake City, ITT, 11, 34 
San Bernardino, CA, 48, 51, 52, 53 
San Bernardino County Museum, 47 
San Francisco, CA, 37 
Sandy Valley, NV, 50 
Sclmalling family, 16 
schools, 2, 3, 4, 5-6, 7, 9-14, 

25, 27, 29-30, 43, 44 
Sewell, Mr., 29 
Seyler ranch, 6 
Sloan, NV, 37, 43, 44, 45 
Smoky Valley, NV, 17, 18, 19, 23 
snow, 9, 15-16, 22 
Southside School, 4 
Steens Mountain, OR, 2 
subdividing, 46-47 
Sunday school, 13, 40 
Swank, Dr., 55 
Swartout, Grandfather, 2 



58 



Swartout family, 2 

swimming pool, 31-32, 38 

Tacoma, WA, 1, 2 

teacherage, 5, 6, 8, 9, 19-20 

teachers, 8-13, 15, 21, 23, 24, 35, 

38, 40-41, 42, 45-46 
television, 37 

Tonopah, NV, 17, 19, 23, 26, 28, 

32, 37, 43 
Tonopah & Tidewater Railroad, 5 
University of Nevada at Reno, 2, 3, 

4, 37, 43 
Von, Mr., 43 
wages, 6-7, 27, 42 
water, 4, 6, 32 
Welch family, 21 

White, Harsha & Maude Yount, 50-51 
Wiley, Roland, 48, 49 
Wingfield, George, 28, 29 
winter, 15-16 
women's jobs, 4, 42 
Worthington, Miss, 6 
Worthington family, 6, 16, 17 
Yellow Pine Mine, 49-50, 53, 54 
Yount, Belle, 48-49 
Yount, Bill, 48, 53, 55 
Yount, Ed, 48, 53, 55 
Yount, Emma Ellis Smithson, 47, 53, 

54, 55 
Yount, Fannie, 51 
Yount, John, 48, 51, 53, 55 
Yount, Joseph, 47, 51 
Yount, Margaret, 51 
Yount, Nellie, 51 
Yount, Sam, 47, 48-49, 51, 52-53, 

54, 55 
Yount family, 47 

Zaval, Irene "Rene" Rogers, 33, 34, 
39 



59